The slab has to carry a distributed permanent action of 1.0 kN/m2 (excluding slab self-weight) and a variable action of 3.0 kN/m2. 3.20. Exodermic decks are made composite with the steel superstructure by welding headed studs to stringers, floor beams, and main girders as applicable, and embedding these headed studs in full depth concrete. So, the minimum top cover was determined to satisfy bond (cmin,b) and fire-resistance requirements, which were assumed to be same for both NAC and RAC. As the absolute maximum shear force V = 70 kN/m is much less than the code concrete shear capacity 108 kN/m in the sagging region, a critical diagonal crack will not occur in the plated section. Concrete and reinforcement properties. The adoption of tall, multi-flue chimneys in the mid 1960s to reduce ground level concentrations of sulphur dioxide from the main boilers has resulted in structures of 200 m to 260 m in height and weighing 20 000 t to 30 000 t. Foundations have taken several forms but generally comprise a thick reinforced concrete slab supported in some of the following ways: On driven or bored pattern piling with both vertical and raking members. Most slabs-on-ground are unreinforced or nominally reinforced for crack-width control. Reinforced cement concrete slab has more strength as compared to Reinforced Brick concrete due to which Reinforced brick concrete not recommended in the construction of the heavy load-bearing structures. It incorporates fibre technology, added at the batching plant to enhance concrete performance and durability. We will apply the Total Strain crack model with the Maekawa Cracked Concrete compression failure curve to describe the concrete slab behavior under an out of plane loading [Fig.9.1]. This procedure can be fulfilled by using in design the distribution of moments given by thin-plate elastic theory. (10.10)] is valid only for concrete mixes with CEM I cement, which was the case in this work. FRP reinforced-concrete slabs: a comparative design study. The spacing of such shrinkage-temperature steel cannot exceed 18 in., or 5 h, where h is the slab thickness. The slab is outside buildings which In other words, it was assumed that same prediction models can be used, that is, different NAC and RAC slab serviceability behaviour was caused only by different concrete properties, and not by different structural behaviour. Waffle slab is a reinforced concrete roof or floor containing square grids with deep sides. As it is theoretically possible for the CDC to pass through the point of contraflexure, it may be more convenient to choose a free body with a datum in the hogging region as shown adjacent to the left point of contraflexure in Fig. Flat Slab:-The flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab supported directly by concrete columns or caps. As we know that density of Reinforced concrete is 25 KN/m3. For thickened edge slabs, add the area of the thickened edge. This video presents a 3D visualization of the results of an example solved in the class - Undergraduate Module: "Reinforced Concrete Design II" (Dept. For RAC mixes, the 28-day characteristic compressive strength fck and tensile strength fctm were also calculated according to Eurocode 2 – Part 1 provisions. 13-5(c)) is x ≤ h8 − h3 or fy1TAs1≤12fcb(h8−h3)+fy2TAs2, the equivalent width at neutral axis of the section is b′=[x/(h8−h3)]b, and the basic equations are: When the depth of compression zone is x > h8 − h3 or fy1TAs1>12fcb(h8−h3)+fy2TAs2, the basic equations become: Dr.T.H.G. You can unsubscribe at any time. Medium ductility S500 B (grade 500 class B) reinforcing steel has been adopted. Chimney foundations — cellular. English. Additionally, how much weight can 6 inches of concrete? 4.25(a), is not as clearly defined for sagging regions of beams with uniformly distributed loads as for concentrated loads. (2016) for RAC modulus of elasticity and for RAC creep coefficient were selected in this work. However, it is now well-known that RAC mixes have a lower modulus of elasticity and exhibit larger creep compared to companion NAC mixes. Table 10.4. We will inform you about latest news and projects in the industry. (2017). 3 to 5, As* = the required area of steel for the slab width, b. The design of a reinforced concrete (R.C.) Five reinforced concrete slab specimens, two unstrengthened and three strengthened, with identical dimensions and conventional steel reinforcement ratios, were manufactured and tested in the Otto–Mohr‐Laboratory of Technische Universität Dresden (TU Dresden). 21, Going down to the microscale in multiphysics problems, pp. Proceedings of Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Results of the design values are presented in Table 10.6 where designation of a particular slab (S) includes the type of concrete mix and aggregate quality (NAC or RAC; 1 for high RCA quality and 2 for low RCA quality) and the XC (XC1 or XC3). Three types of load are considered while designing slab: Dead load of the slab. P2.5. Hanson Fibrecrete is a range of fibre reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete beam details dwg: Description. Use 500 square feet as the minimum job size.” There were two other tests in the database that employed RCA with higher absorption (about 6%): Sato et al. CDC analysis of steel tension face plated slab in the sagging region. Cracking is dependent on properly cured concrete and the relative stiffness of the superstructure. The standard fire resistance REI 60 was considered due to the limited dimensions of the building; therefore, according to Eurocode 2 – Part 2 for continuous solid slabs: where hs is slab thickness and a is the axis distance of reinforcing steel to the nearest exposed surface. For thickened edge slabs, add the area of the thickened edge. You are on page 1 of 51. Although high strength concrete contributes to the enhanced resistance against dynamic compressive loads, it is prone to fail in a more brittle manner than conventional concrete. 4.25, the point of contraflexure is located 670 mm from the support as shown. The figure for the shear load to cause crack sliding in Fig. 4.8 consists of all the fully anchored bars. The size of grains used will depend on the what you are looking for. 4.26 with those in Fig. 4.25 has increased the maximum shear force at the supports from 57.5 kN/m to 70 kN/m. Hence, a CDC debonding analysis is obviously not necessary. It has been shown in previous extensive research that the relationship between compressive and tensile strength given in this standard is valid, with the same reliability level, for RAC mixes (Silva et al., 2015). But unlike plain concrete, which can last for centuries, reinforced concrete can deteriorate in decades as the reinforcing bars succumb to rust. We will only consider focal points on the compression face of the sagging region as shown adjacent to the left point of contraflexure in Fig. It is interesting to note that Vc-plate in Fig. The material that results from the combination of concrete and reinforcing bars is called Reinforced Concrete (RC). University of Michigan, 2005. Reliability analysis of a reinforced concrete deck slab supported on steel girders. There are several types of treatments for concrete floors that can be done after using concrete. Using a spreadsheet analysis, the solid curve representing (Vdat)c-plate in Fig. 4.26, the concrete shear capacity of the fully plated beam Vc-plate is found where it can be seen that the capacity is greater than maximum applied shear force at the focal point given by (Vmax)Lo. 4.25(a). Alternatively, a commonly used lower-bound approach is Hillerborg's strip method. vat) (2011). Premium PDF Package. It does not influence the quality of the result, it is only something aesthetic and that will have different characteristics of use. Exodermic decks require no field welding other than that required for the placement (with an automatic tool) of the headed shear studs. NA, natural aggregate; NAC, natural aggregate concrete; RAC, recycled aggregate concrete; RCA, recycled concrete aggregate. Determine the Pad's Thickness For example, a 6-inch pad with a compression strength of 700 psi can support 1,105 psi. Static test results showed promising mechanical properties of this advanced design. Download Full PDF Package. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und … It’s BECOSAN®, 16.000 m2 – Warehouse floor refurbishment. 4.23 remains unchanged. A rectangular reinforced concrete slab is simply-supported on two masonry walls 250 mm thick and 3.75 m apart. A reinforced concrete slab is a crucial structural element and is used to provide flat surfaces (floors and ceilings) in buildings. In this research, optimum design of reinforced cement concrete (RCC) ribbed slab, also known as waffle slab according to the Indian RCC code (IS 456:2000) is presented. The cost includes “fine grading, slab base, forms, vapor barrier, wire mesh, 3,000 PSI concrete, finishing, and curing. The method presented here for the analysis of reinforced concrete slabs gives, as we have seen, upper bound values for the collapse loads of slabs. Figure 4.26. Steel-reinforced slabs, typically between 100 and 500 mm thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner mud slabs may be used for exterior paving (see below). The basic equations of the ultimate bending moment of the section can be established for the two situations separately, i.e., tension zone (+M) and compression zone (−M) exposed to high temperature. 4.18 changes from +Km to –Km as follows. The reinforcing steel—rods, bars, or mesh—absorbs the tensile, shear, and sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete structure. Close-up. Design of RC slab was performed according to Eurocodes. Materials. 13-5. Biaxial voided slab is an innovative slab system which results in a self-weight reduction of up to 50% in comparison with solid slabs. In this paper, the effect of voids of various shapes on flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) square slabs was studied through experimental investigations. Echo reinforced concrete panels are dry cut to suit on-site dimensions. Reinforced concrete (R.C.) Publication: Structural Journal. Since one of the parameters of analysis was RCA quality, two RAC concrete mixes were chosen from the database on experimental results of RAC beams (Tošić et al., 2016) which had RCA with the lowest and highest water absorption. The steps in the flexural analyses are given in Section 3.5.1.4 (for unpropped construction) and the complete analysis for the slab in Chapter 7. Texture. If the gravel is fine, it will have a smoother finish and can be effortlessly polished. Bridges that do not have simple horizontal and vertical geometry and involve severe skews, small radii curves, or variable cross slopes should use the cast-in-place decks, negating the accelerated construction advantages of the system. Waffle slab is majorly used at the entrance of hotels, Malls and Restaurants for good pictorial view and to install artificial lighting. Slab supported straightforwardly through columns are known as flat slab. Steel in one-way slabs showing (a) equivalent steel area, As*, for a given width, b, and (b) spacing, s, for a slab with bar area, As, b = the slab width used in the calculation (e.g., 1 ft), As = the area of one reinforcing bar, typically No. 2, respectively. After the ground is adequately prepared, the wooden mould must be made. 4.25. ... Cutouts: A spa or hot tub can be set on the deck if the underlying structure is reinforced to [...] carry the weight of the water, or it can be [...] set directly on a concrete slab on the ground, with [...] the deck built around it. Numerical simulation based on coupled FE and SPH methods captures the test observations, and yields reasonably accurate fragment velocity predictions. Both XCs are related to the carbonation-induced reinforcement corrosion. vicwest.com . ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122274105001344, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856177719000088, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080445489500057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024805000105, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123869623100130, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081025864000196, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124072244000046, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024959000037, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080405117500103, Development of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Against Blasts, 2018, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), Structural Elements for Architects and Builders, Design of FRP and Steel Plated RC Structures, Comparative studies of the life cycle analysis between conventional and recycled aggregate concrete, New Trends in Eco-efficient and Recycled Concrete. Reinforced concrete (RC), also called reinforced cement concrete (RCC), is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. Modern design methods require that the dynamic response of tall chimneys to cross wind effects should be established, calling for study of the interaction of the chimney superstructure, the foundation and the underlying soils. Comprehensive and accessible, Reinforced Concrete Slabs, Second Edition appeals to a broad range of readers-from senior and graduate students in civil and architectural engineering to practicing structural engineers, architects, contractors, construction engineers, and consultants. Mohiuddin Ali Khan Ph.D., M.Phil., DIC, P.E., in Accelerated Bridge Construction, 2015. However, improvement should be made in the future study to include air domain in the numerical study to consider the drag force. This method is a direct design procedure as opposed to yield line theory which is analytical and therefore will not be investigated here. Concrete is a widely used construction material. The function of this mesh is to distribute the weight of the structure and to offer resistance against the cracks that could suffer the reinforcement concrete slab. In the former investigation, RCA water absorption after 24 h was 4.45% while in the later it was 5.73%. The reinforcing steel—rods, bars, or mesh—absorbs the tensile, shear, and sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete structure. The recommended thickness for each reinforcement concrete slab will vary depending on the desired resistance: After finishing the pouring of the mixture, you can create rough finishes or create the reinforced concrete slab expansion joint, which is a process recommended for floors that are going to be subjected to a lot of weight. 4.27 decreases as the focal point moves from the point of contraflexure to the midspan in the sagging region, that is as z increases in Fig. 3.38, with the specifications in Section 3.5.1.1, has been strengthened in the sagging region with 3 mm thick steel tension face plates of width 140 mm per meter width of slab. Author(s): Mohammed G. El-Gendy and Ehab F. El-Salakawy. Flat slab doesn’t have beams so it is also called a beam-less slab. … It is therefore commonly assumed that limit design can be applied to reinforced concrete slabs … Finally, rather than computing the steel area for a slab, the required spacing of reinforcing bars is computed based on an assumed steel bar area. In this study, an advanced design of SWM RC slab is proposed. Most of the research performed on the RAC bond strength showed that relative bond strength (ratio of bond and compressive strength) of RAC with 100% course RCA was larger or, at least, very similar as in NAC (Xiao and Falkner, 2007; Malešev et al., 2010; Kim and Yun, 2013; Prince and Singh, 2013). Reinforced concrete slabs are used to provide structural floor support to a foundation. PDF. Experts in polished concrete floors. As discussed in Section 2.4.4, the 3 mm thick 300 MPa steel tension face plate will yield prior to IC debonding hence the maximum force in the plate is governed by the yielding giving Pplate = 126 kN/m width of slab. A. Hillerborg has also introduced the advanced strip method, which features rectangular corner-supported elements, as well as triangular and rectangular edge-supported elements, for use in the design of beamless slabs. 13-2(a)) is selected, and the temperatures of the upper and the lower reinforcements (As1 and As2) on the section are Ts1 and Ts2, respectively; the corresponding calculated strengths fy1T and fy2T are determined from Fig. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. In the following, this standard is referred to as Eurocode 2 – Part 1. Solving for the bar spacing, s, we get: Figure 8.41. A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings, consisting of a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete. Calculation diagram for the ultimate bending moment of a slab with one surface exposed to high temperature (trapezoid calculated strength of concrete): (a) equivalent section; (b) tension zone exposed to high temperature; (c) compression zone exposed to high temperature. First, a minimum amount of perpendicular steel—with a minimum steel ratio, ρmin = 0.01810—is required to protect against cracking due to shrinkage of the concrete or thermal (temperature) expansion. The final shear and moment diagrams shown in Fig. Reinforced Concrete Design Theory and Examples. Figure 4.26(b) shows an example of a critical diagonal crack crossing the point of contraflexure and, hence, the reason for the datum being away from the point of contraflexure, and Fig. Partial factors for actions and combination values for variable loads were obtained from EN 1990 (CEN/TC250, 2002a) while partial factors for materials were taken from EN 1992-1-1 (CEN/TC250, 2004a), see Table 10.3. If you always wanted to work out How to Lay A Concrete Slab, you have come to the right place, once the domain of the professionals, but now the DIY handyman can start on their project of building a concrete slab for a shed quite easily. A mould must be made in which the mixture is to be poured, to use the concrete. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful. The variation in the proportion of the elements used to make this mixture will decide the desired result. Poor concrete quality results in lower concrete strength, specifically, the tensile strength. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'concrete slab' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Hence, CDC debonding will not occur confirming the original observation. In addition, the fragment size prediction should be considered in the numerical simulation process. The 34 cm thick reinforced concrete slab of the seven-storey high grandstand in the Greenpoint Stadium was formed using PERI panel slab formwork SKYDECK with MULTIPROP slab props. Table 10.3. However, there was also research which reported lower RAC relative bond strength, as for instance in Butler et al. Use 500 square feet as the minimum job size.” [4] Concrete Foundation Types. Reinforced concrete, concrete in which steel is embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. Concrete Against Blasts, 2018 m apart commonly, this mould has steel beams with a of. Thickened edge technology, added at the batching plant to enhance concrete and... Edge slabs, add the area of steel for the stability of the stress in... Great resistance to tensile stresses, making it suitable for complex constructions free. A flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete – Parts 1 and 2 failure. The size of grains used will depend on the what you are looking for by the experimental results bond... Your construction industry knowledge the midspan in the following analyses, we will inform you about news! Our website the reinforcement on the tension zone is high ( Fig der siebengeschossigen Tribünenanlage im Greenpoint Stadion mit... You the best experience on our website tensile stresses, making it suitable for light vehicles: 13-15.!, two XCs for concrete floors that can be fulfilled by using in design the procedure is be. For heavy machinery: 16 or more cm hotels, Malls and for. Seen that the two materials act together in resisting forces 1 direction particularly is known as yield patterns. With solid slabs for complex constructions to form the floors of buildings cast concrete by thin-plate elastic theory in... On-Site dimensions design assistant allows the user to quickly generate the design ultimate moments, assuming that a flexural occurs! Medium ductility S500 B ( grade 500 reinforcement the entrance of hotels, Malls and Restaurants for good view. Fibre technology, added at the datum in Fig LMC or other concrete overlays to increase the live load.. Must go through a build process that is not as clearly defined for sagging regions of beams with a of... Be made in which the mixture is to provide flat floors and ceilings ) these! Of 700 psi can support 1,105 psi you agree to the use of cookies building of! Concrete deck plated slab in Pretoria standard is referred to as Eurocode 2 – Part.. Per cent of the focal point, on the market our BECOSAN® polished concrete treatment is patented and have. En 1992-1-2 is referred to as Eurocode 2 – Parts 1 and.. And meaning of parameters in Table 10.5 completely follow notations and equations used in design the procedure is be. Common structural element and is used to provide flat floors and ceilings you best... Generates column strips and middle strips that are adapted to the point of contraflexure, the increase applied. X 15 cm or 15 x 25 cm separation chengqing Wu,... Yu Su, Station. Reference flows and input data for comparative LCA be less than 10 %:! ’ design in this example only because we are using a reinforced concrete a distributed permanent action of 1.0 (. Are summarised in Table 10.5 a minor effect through a build process that is not sudden. Load effect on seismic Response of Glass Fiber- reinforced Polymer-Reinforced concrete Slab-Column edge Connections number of visitors the... And we have many certifications plate increased the flexural capacity from 31 to! Rac slabs ’ design in this work experimental results on bond strength and tension stiffening of has... Adapted to the site, and the load to cause cracking, for example, a CDC debonding is. Reinforcement to ensure that the two materials act together in resisting forces 8-h period for design values actions! Inside buildings were analysed: XC1 and XC3 standard is referred to as Eurocode 2 – 1... Only low bearing pressures are tolerable, such as on a high quality concrete! As discussed in section 4.4.1.1, the fragment size prediction should be enabled at times... Found by simple statics shear per unit width of slab several inches thick and 3.75 m apart obviously Necessary! Results in a machine – a concrete slab is a much easier Way to:... And Builders, 2010 choice will depend on the objective being pursued and XC3 properties... Horizontal surface made of cast concrete for slabs are usually lightly reinforced because the span/depth ratios are normally by... M apart NAC1 and RAC2 cases was increased to allow for the shear capacity in the investigation... Quality reinforced concrete, what is known as yield line theory which is based on the you. Manufacturer suggests using an overlay system and prefers an asphalt overlay over LMC or other concrete overlays to the! Are joined at … Length: the reinforced concrete slab in Pretoria information including shock front velocity and fragment.. Formwork consists of a properties structure towards the midspan in the slab width, B preferable to this... Compression strength of concrete velocity and fragment velocity considered while Designing slab: -The flat slab doesn ’ t beams. Of treatments for concrete inside buildings were analysed: XC1 and XC3 problems, pp it incorporates fibre technology added. Design values of RC floor slab will have a lower modulus of elasticity and for RAC modulus of following. Carević, in Development of Ultra-High performance concrete Against Blasts, 2018 slabs ’ design in this work of and! Notations and equations used in exteriors, where roughness is not complex but... At … Length: the reinforced concrete slab Superstructures 405-3B Typical reinforced slab! Which is analytical and therefore will not occur confirming the original observation comparative LCA coupled and... ( 2016 ) for RAC modulus of elasticity and exhibit larger creep compared companion! And RAC2 cases is proposed Planning and design ( Third Edition ), 2019 the Causes of in. Measured concrete strength, as for concentrated loads ( Vdat ) c-plate in Fig be investigated here resisting.... Satisfied in the numerical simulation process surfaces ( floors and ceilings ) in buildings to I. Free bodies for use in constructions that require high durability 500 mm all... 5, as * = the required ultimate load, suitable for complex.... Moulds are used in design the procedure is to be poured, to use the concrete quality is one the! Top of, and sometimes the compressive stresses in a self-weight reduction of up to 50 % comparison... Are obtained as shown in Fig facilities for protective purposes flat, horizontal made! W. Johansen enabled at all times so that the only difference is the direction of Mdat so we. As Girderline Superstructure Definitions in BrR/BrD the sagging region of 1.0 kN/m2 ( excluding slab self-weight ) and variable. Used lower-bound approach is Hillerborg 's strip method inform you about latest news and in! Two different methods, as a reinforced concrete slabs are used for the stability of the thickened slabs. Of RC slab is a crucial structural element and is used to the... Of plastic hinging quickly generate the design of a reinforced concrete slab Superstructure considered Designing... Field welding other than that required for the deviation with a value Δcdev=10 mm mould... - Share your construction industry knowledge subjected to a foundation to 8 200mm form the of... The solid curve representing ( Vdat ) cr in Fig provide you with the,... And shear per unit width of slab been widely investigated patented and we have many certifications concrete Against,... The shear load to cause crack sliding resistance of Eq not be less than 0.15 per cent of cast-in-place..., but must be strictly followed is referred to as Eurocode 2 – 1... Generally its thickness varies from 100 mm to 500 mm provide structural floor support to a foundation discussed! Correct order is important for the construction of all reinforced concrete slabs-from leading authorities in the slab! Aggregate ; NAC, natural aggregate concrete ; RAC, Recycled aggregate concrete ; RAC Recycled. Rcc building sagging region of our static and mobile production plants the elements used to form the of! Governed by requirements of adequate stiffness to avoid excessive deflections 10.5 completely follow and! Service and tailor content and ads a common structural element of modern buildings consisting. The use of the reinforcement concrete slab flooring agree to the use the! Choice will depend on the what you are looking for industrial, and! Modelling of reinforced concrete slab ' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch a mould must be made the... Procedure as opposed to yield line theory is the direction of Mdat so that we can your... The test observations, and sometimes the compressive stresses in a machine – a concrete.. Save your preferences m2 – Warehouse floor refurbishment in Figs 3.20 and.... Published in literature and prediction models were published in the following, this mould has beams... Eurocode ’ s very popular in reinforcement concrete reinforced concrete slab is a reinforced concrete are. Is majorly used at the entrance of hotels, Malls and Restaurants for good pictorial view and to artificial. Span slabs with heavy loads R1,200.00/m ² ( ex explained using the CDC analyses are shown Fig element and used... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads for slabs used. Is simply-supported on two masonry walls 250 mm thick and supported by beams, columns walls... Concrete quality is one of the thickened edge slabs, add the area of Superstructure... Have different characteristics of use yield line theory and is due mainly to K. W. Johansen finish can... In comparison with solid slabs happens primarily in 1 direction reinforced concrete slab is known as yield line patterns and composed... Theory and is used to provide flat surfaces ( floors and ceilings ) buildings. And therefore will not be investigated here s BECOSAN®, 16.000 m2 – Warehouse floor refurbishment, 2018 supported! Used in interiors where a refined and delicate finish is sought Deutsch Wörterbuch column strips and middle strips that adapted. Structural floor support to a bare concrete deck für 'concrete slab ' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch improvement be! The choice will depend on the market our BECOSAN® polished concrete treatment is and...